Assessment of low temperature printable carbon electrodes for perovskite solar cells
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have the potential to become key players in the solar energy market, due to their high efficiencies, short energy payback time and versatility of applications. Highly efficient opaque PSCs employ metals as top electrodes, which increase the overall cost of the device, are not suitable for large scale manufacturing and have a detrimental effect on the cell stability. Developing low cost, metal-free, stable electrodes is therefore crucial to enable the commercialization of PSCs. In this proposal, Dyenamo will provide a commercially available low temperature printable carbon-based paste. This material will be tested at TNO as electrode for perovskite solar cells fabricated by large area compatible methods, such as slot die coating. Deposition of the electrode will be carried out by screen printing on 6 inch samples. Uniformity of the layer will be assessed and the performance of the cells evaluated under standard testing conditions.
Status: Ongoing
Date of proposal: 25/05/2022
Start date: 09/01/2023
End Date: 02/02/2023
Used Instruments: S2S_P2L. WACOM class AAA sun simulator.
Experimental Technique: Screen printing of carbon electrodes. Current-Voltage (JV) measurement. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).
Experiment Description: The project focused on assessing low temperature carbon electrodes for perovskite solar cells. Objectives included defining optimal screen printing parameters for Dyenamos DN-CP01 carbon paste, assessing compatibility with perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated by means of S2S compatible methods, and evaluating the effect of the Hole Transport Layer (HTL) on device performance.
Type Samples: Perovskite solar cells with carbon electrodes.
Sample Description: PSCs fabricated with glass/TCO/ETL/perovskite structure and glass/TCO/ETL/perovskite/HTL structure, combined with screen-printed carbon electrodes.
Experiment Data Type: Electrical properties (sheet resistance) of carbon electrodes. Photovoltaic parameters (PCE, Jsc, FF, Voc) of the PSCs.
Characterization Technics: Sheet resistance measurement using a four-point probe. Photovoltaic performance testing.
Characterization Data Type: Electrical characteristics of carbon electrodes. Performance data of PSCs with different electrode thicknesses and configurations.
Analyzed Data: Optimized screen printing parameters for carbon electrodes. Comparative performance analysis of HTL-free and HTL-containing PSCs with carbon electrodes.
Main Targets Project: Defining optimal screen printing parameters for carbon paste. Assessing the compatibility of screen-printed carbon electrodes with perovskite solar cells.
Main Achievements Findings: Achieved low sheet resistance of carbon films on PET (70 ?/sqr) and on glass/TCO/ETL/perovskite/HTL (18 and 40 ?/sqr for different thicknesses). HTL-free devices showed a maximum PCE of 8.2% while HTL/carbon cells delivered lower efficiencies (4.3% and 3.7% for different electrode thicknesses). HTL-free devices also exhibited improved light stability compared to reference devices. Lower performance of HTL/carbon-based PSCs was mainly due to lower FF and Jsc, potentially caused by high series resistance and low shunt resistance.